History Of Mughals
Many stories of India’s enormous wealth had spread far and wide. India was well known as ‘sone ki chidiya’. It had in its treasure, valuable precious and semi-precios stones . It was so famous that Timur came here and plundered almost all the wealth and he also took the finest craftsmen to beautify his capital ‘Samarkand’.
The mughal emperor was founded by Babur in India. He was so motivated to see India by and old woman who had narrated to him many stories about India, that he invaded India for four times but was unsuccessful and he succeeded in his fifth attempt. He found nothing that could interest him.
After his death on 25 December 1530, Humayun ascended the throne. He was defeated by Sher Shah and he fled to Sind in Umarkot Akbar was, who ascended the throne in 1556 at the age of thirteen. Bairam Khan was his guardian at that time.
After some time he took over the whole charge. He had many learned men and ministers in his darbar one of the most important ministers was Birbal. Akbar had over 300 wives but was not enough lucky to have a son. To fulfil his wish having a son he went to sleek the blessings of Sheikh Salim Chisti, a famous saint who resided in Sikri near Agra. He had a baby boy. Whom he named Salim, later who was known as Jahangir. Akbar built Fatehpur Sikri in honor of the saint. Jahangir became a great scholar of Hindi, Arabian, Turkish and Persian.
Jahangir got married to Noor Jahan. In his later days he became addicted to women and wine. He died in 1628 and Shah Jahan ascended the throne. He was fond of building Palaces and huge monuments. “Taj ” being the best construction is known worldwide. Shah Jahan’s old age passed in agony and disgust due to his son Aurangzeb who destroyed the temples and tried to impose Islam on all the people of his kingdom. There are many reasons for the downfall of the mighty Mughal Emperor. The Mighty Empire, which was founded by Babur, and strengthened by the wit and wisdom of Akbar, the great, the same empire which was given the sense of justice by Jahangir and lusture and and fashion of Noor Jahan which was immortalised by Shah Jahan.
Shah Jahan by constructing the Taj Mahal, could not retained by the unwisely and intolerant policy of Aurangzeb were incompetent. Shah Jahan was utterly devoted to Mumtaz Mahal, who was his constant companion and trusted confidante and their relationship was intense. Indeed, the court historians go to unheard of lengths to document the intimate and erotic relationship the couple enjoyed.
Although his father’s rule was generally peaceful, the empire was experiencing challenges by the end of his reign. Shah Jahan reversed this trend by putting down a Islamic rebellion in Ahmednagar, repulsing the Portuguese in Bengal, capturing the Rajput kingdoms of Baglana and Bundelkhand to the west and the northwest beyond the Khyber Pass. Under his rule, the state became a huge military machine and the nobles and their contingents multiplied almost fourfold,as did the demands for more revenue from the peasantry. It was however a period of general stability — the administration was centralised and court affairs systematised.
All the successor of Aurangzeb were incompetent. Auranzeb wanted to divide his kingdom amongst his three sons. Built like a tradition of Mughal family, all the three started a struggle for the throne, ultimately, Prince Muajjam defeated the remaining two brothers in 1707 A.D. and he ascended the throne with the title of Bahadur Shah. But after a short spell of only five years, he died in Lahore in the year 1712 A.D.
During the later Mughals, there were so many incompetent successors in the Mughal Dynasty, that one after the other, were crowned and decrowned, even by their petty court nobles like Sayyad Brothers until 1857,A.D.. Thus, the mughal rulers ruled India for name only upto 1857 when ultimately they were routed by the British from the throne.